CA parameters with respects to covariate


The figure displays the individual parameters as a function of the covariates. It allows to identify correlation effects between the individual parameters and the covariates.

Identifying correlation effects

In the example below, we can see the parameters Cl and V1 with respect to the covariates: the weight WT, the age AGE and the sex category.

Visual guidelines

In order to help identifying correlations, regression lines, spline interpolations and correlation coefficients can be overlaid on the plots for continuous covariates. Here we can see a strong correlation between the parameter Cl and the age and the weight. This is the same with V1.


Hovering on a point reveals the corresponding individual and, if multiple individual parameters have been simulated from the conditional distribution for each individual, highlights all the points points from the same individual. This is useful to identify possible outliers and subsequently check their behavior in the observed data.


It is possible to select a subset of covariates or parameters, as shown below. In the selection panel, a set of contiguous rows can be selected with a single extended click, or a set of non-contiguous rows can be selected with several clicks while holding the Ctrl key. This is useful when there are many parameters or covariates.


Stratification can be applied by creating groups of covariate values. As can be seen below, these groups can then be split, colored or filtered, allowing to check the effect of the covariate on the correlation between two parameters. The correlation coefficient is updated according to the split or filtering.


  • General
    • Legend and grid : add/remove the legend or the grid. There is only one legend for all plots.
    • Information: display/hide the correlation coefficient associated with each scatter plot.
  • Display
    • Selection. The user can select some of the parameters or covariates to display only the corresponding plots. A simple click selects one parameter (or covariate), whereas multiple clicks while holding the Ctrl key selects a set of parameters.
    • Visual cues. Add/remove a regression line or a spline interpolation.